Sex Differences in Diabetes- and TGF-β1-Induced Renal Damage / Nadja Ziller, Roland Kotolloshi, Mohsen Esmaeili, Marita Liebisch, Ralf Mrowka, Aria Baniahmad, Thomas Liehr, Gunter Wolf and Ivonne Loeffler

Abstract: While females are less affected by non-diabetic kidney diseases compared to males, available data on sex differences in diabetic nephropathy (DN) are controversial. Although there is evidence for an imbalance of sex hormones in diabetes and hormone-dependent mechanisms in transforming growth factor β1 (TGF-β1) signaling, causes and consequences are still incompletely understood. Here we investigated the influence of sex hormones and sex-specific gene signatures in diabetes- and TGF-β1-induced renal damage using various complementary approaches (a db/db diabetes mouse model, ex vivo experiments on murine renal tissue, and experiments with a proximal tubular cell line TKPTS). Our results show that: (i) diabetes affects sex hormone concentrations and renal expression of their receptors in a sex-specific manner; (ii) sex, sex hormones and diabetic conditions influence differences in expression of TGF-β1, its receptor and bone morphogenetic protein 7 (BMP7); (iii) the sex and sex hormones, in combination with variable TGF-β1 doses, determine the net outcome in TGF-β1-induced expression of connective tissue growth factor (CTGF), a profibrotic cytokine. Altogether, these results suggest complex crosstalk between sex hormones, sex-dependent expression pattern and profibrotic signals for the precise course of DN development. Our data may help to better understand previous contradictory findings regarding sex differences in DN. Keywords: diabetic nephropathy; diabetes mellitus; kidney; tubulointerstitial fibrosis; sex differences; transforming growth factor beta 1; TGF-β1; testosterone; DHT; estradiol

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Persons: Ziller, Nadja [Author]; Kotolloshi, Roland [Author]; Esmaeili, Mohsen [Author]; Liebisch, Marita [Author]; Mrowka, Ralf [Author]; Baniahmad, Aria [Author]; Liehr, Thomas [Author]; Wolf, Gunter [Author]; Löffler, Ivonne [Author]
Format: eArticle
Language(s):English
Publication:3 October 2020
Part of:Cells 9(2020,10) Artikel-Nummer , Seiten
Physical description:8 Illustrationen (teilweise farbig)
ISSN:2073-4409
DOI:10.3390/cells9102236